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                                                    機床的發展歷史
                                                    作者:    發布于:2016-02-29 16:23:59    文字:【】【】【

                                                    機床是指制造機器的機器,亦稱工作母機或工具機,習慣上簡稱機床。一般分為金屬切削機床、鍛壓機床和木工機床等。現代機械制造中加工機械零件的方法很多:除切削加工外,還有鑄造、鍛造、焊接、沖壓、擠壓等,但凡屬精度要求較高和表面粗糙度要求較細的零件,一般都需在機床上用切削的方法進行最終加工。機床在國民經濟現代化的建設中起著重大作用。

                                                    十五世紀的機床雛形,由于制造鐘表和武器的需要,出現了鐘表匠用的螺紋車床和齒輪加工機床,以及水力驅動的炮筒鏜床。1501年左右,意大利人列奧納多·達芬奇曾繪制過車床、鏜床、螺紋加工機床和內圓磨床的構想草圖,其中已有曲柄、飛輪、頂尖和軸承等新機構。中國明朝出版的《天工開物》中也載有磨床的結構,用腳踏的方法使鐵盤旋轉,加上沙子和水來剖切玉石。

                                                    工業革命導致了各種機床的產生和改進。十八世紀的工業革命推動了機床的發展。1774年,英國人威爾金森(全名約翰·威爾金森)發明了較精密的炮筒鏜床。次年,他用這臺炮筒鏜床鏜出的汽缸,滿足了瓦特蒸汽機的要求。為了鏜制更大的汽缸,他又于1775年制造了一臺水輪驅動的汽缸鏜床,促進了蒸汽機的發展。從此,機床開始用蒸汽機通過曲軸驅動。

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